Since temperature and sound velocity normally decrease with increasing altitude, sound is refracted upward, away from listeners on the ground, creating an acoustic shadow at some distance from the source. See the section on gases in specific heat capacity for a more complete discussion of this phenomenon. The speed of compression waves in solids is determined by the medium's compressibility , shear modulus and density. For a given ideal gas with constant heat capacity and composition, the speed of sound is dependent solely upon temperature; see Details below. An empirical equation for the speed of sound in sea water is provided by Mackenzie: . Hidden categories: Use dmy dates from October All articles with unsourced statements Articles with unsourced statements from August Articles needing additional references from February All articles needing additional references Articles with unsourced statements from October The ratio of the speed of an object to the speed of sound in the fluid is called the object's Mach number.
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